Divisions & Section
- Natural Resource Management
- Horticulture & Forestry
- Field Crops
- Animal Science
- Fisheries Science
- Social Science
Natural Resource Management
- Silpaulin and geo-membrane are found as suitable lining
materials for effectively controlling the seepage losses from the farm
pond. However, lining material should be covered with suitable
material for protection from higher daily insolation
in A&N islands located close to equator for increased life. A new
technique for lining of the tank with plastic film and reinforced
plaster (1:6) on sides and 15 cm thick soil layer at bottom for higher
life period has been evolved.
- Water balance analysis in terms of water resource
potential, realizable potential water requirement and water resource
development was estimated for Kaju Nallah watershed. Based on monthly well recuperation
test, it is recommended that the recharge structure cum-well system
should be developed in valley areas, where longitudinal slope of nallah is less, to get significantly enhanced and
consistent well yield during the dry season.
- On the basis of pH, EC, cation
exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, soil acidity, base saturation
percent, available nutrient contents and fertility constraints for
crop production, fertility capability classification were made for
rice growing areas of South Andaman. Poor drainage during monsoon and
Aluminum toxicity are the major constrain for crop production. Soil
fertility map for North, Middle and South Andaman Islands have been
developed for further soil resource planning.
- Assessment of tsunami affected soils and water in the
post tsunami period (2005-2009) revealed that the temporal and spatial
variability in soil pH, electrical conductivity and microbial loads
are approaching towards normal pre tsunami condition due to the
leaching of excess soluble salts by monsoon rainfall.
- Application of different organic amendments
increased the soil pH relative to control. The relative liming
efficiency was highest for poultry manure and least for coconut husk
used alone. The RLE was found to be highest between 120 to 150 days of
- The net productivity and return analysis of
application of different manures and fertilizer levels on Okra yield
indicated that at moderate input supply inorganic + vermicompost @ 75 % recommended dose gave higher
return. Similarly, under only organic input supply vermicompost
+ poultry manure @ 75% recommended dose was found to be best
- Integrated farming systems tested for different
micro-farming situations revealed better socio-economic prospect in
terms of high net returns and employment generation. In case of
integration of fish-cum-poultry-cum-duckery
in the farming system, pond water should not be used for house hold
purposes as microbial load increases substantially during summer
season. No mortality was observed when introduced gradually to saline
water of different concentrations up to 15 ppt. On an average, net
return of Rs 25600 can be obtained from fresh water based farming
system in which animal and crop component contributed 92% and 6%,
respectively under on-farm condition. Similarly, in brackish water
based system, animal component contributed 97% towards the net
- Adoption of Broad Bed and Furrow (BBF) system
provides opportunity for crop diversification in low lying paddy
lands. Higher net return can be realized by growing radish-chillies on the beds and rice-ratoon
(azolla + fish: singhi
+ magur)-groundnut in the furrows. Cropping
intensity of rice areas can be increased from 100 % to 300-500 % on
the beds and up to 300 % on the furrows through BBF system.
- SRI method led to significantly higher yield (2613
kg ha-1) than conventional method (2400 kg ha-1) apart from saving of
seed and planting time. SRI method of planting was found to be
economical in terms of energy compared to line and mechanical
transplanting as energy ratio was more (3.9).
- Bold seeded groundnut varieties (SG 99, ICGS 76, TG
37A and GPBD 4) can be grown as profitable crop in rice fallow areas.
Sowing of SG 99 or ICGS 76 of varieties of table purpose groundnut is
recommended by manual line sowing during last week of December to
first week of January. Net return of Rs. 56000/ha can be obtained in
rice fallow lands having sandy or sandy loam soils. Further, two
irrigations at life and pegging with paddy straw mulch on 45 DAS can
be advocated for realizing higher pod yield, net returns, B:C ratio
and water productivity. More than two irrigations leads to reduced pod
- Seed production of table purpose groundnut can be
taken up profitably in coconut plantation during wet season.
Application of 10 t ha-1 of FYM with ICGS76 or TG37A variety is found
suitable for higher kernel seed yield. Around 62% higher kernel seed
yield can be obtained in younger plantations than old plantations
- Supplemental irrigation at knee high, tassel
initiation and grain filling stages of maize, flowering, pod setting
stages of green gram, 4-5 leaf stage, flowering, pod setting stages of
sesamum, early vegetative, flowering, fruit
formation stages of ladies finger and chilli
were identified to achieve higher yield and profitability during
- Kalmegh should be grown during summer season under
irrigated condition with 45 x 30 cm spacing along with basal
application of FYM @12.5 t ha-1 to achieve higher biomass yield and
net returns under Island conditions.
- A modified greenhouse was developed with 60%
reduced cost towards two-exhaust fans, shading nets, cooling system
and humidity control system that maintained inside temperature (1oC
higher) and relative humidity (23% lower) than existing greenhouse resulting
in saving of energy and water.
- The capacity of CARI pedal operated, KAU hand
operated coconut dehuskers and local tool sabbal was 119, 68 and 170
nuts/hr, respectively. Even farm women found CARI pedal operated dehusker comfortable and safe in operation.
- Solar dryer made using local materials saved 33%
time in comparison to open sun drying of coconut, black pepper,
mushroom, green chillies, jack fruit pulp
and fish. It also improved the quality of dried products as
there were no attack of maggot and insect pest.
- Ventilation area of more than 12% of polyhouse area is to be kept for maintaining the
temperature inside the poly house. Spacing of 60 X 60 cm can be
recommended for capsicum under polyhouse
conditions in bay islands to realize higher yield. High value crops
such as cauliflower, capsicum and lettuce can be recommended for
higher yield and returns from the investment made for polyhouse.
- Water balance approach was used to design the
optimal size of lined tank fed from impermeable rooftop or plastic
mulched vegetable area. In case of 50 m2 rooftop area to harvest
rainwater in lined tank, 361 cu m and 322 cu m capacity tank can
provide supplemental irrigation at IW/CPE ratio 0.5 to 18 coconut
plants or 160 arecanut plants in 1000 m2 in
8 out of 10 years during the dry period. In case of plastic mulched
area of 1000 m2 to harvest rainwater, 290 cu m capacity tank can
provide supplemental irrigation at IW/CPE ratio 0.5 in the same area
with 2778 capsicum plants.
- Out of 60 plant samples tested 23.0 % of the
samples were detected with pesticide residues. Among the OC compounds,
α endosulfan, β endosulfan and endosulfan
sulphate were detected in 7 % of samples
which were found in cabbage, bhendi and
French bean samples. The residues of SP compounds such as α-cypermethrin and λ-cyhalothrin
were detected in 12% of samples tested. The residues of OP compounds
such as profenophos, chlorpyriphos,
monocrotophos and triazophos
were found in 12% samples which were found in brinjal,
cauliflower, bhendi, green chilli and French bean samples. Off the positive
samples detected 14 % of the samples were found to contain residues
exceeding the prescribed MRL. The highest concentrations of pesticide
residues were found in soils under vegetable cultivation (up to 54.190
µg kg-1 soil) followed by fallow lands which were earlier under rice
or vegetable cultivation (up to 13.38 µg kg-1 soil).
- Verification of forecasted and observed values of
rainfall under Agromet weekly advisories for
A&N Islands revealed that on an average forecasted and observed
values of rainfall are matching to the tune of 53.7 % during post
monsoon period while it is only 23.4 % for monsoon period.
Horticulture & Forestry
Varietal Evaluation and Standardization of
Agro techniques in Tropical Fruits:
- Eighteen mango clones (Mangifera
indica Linn.) including fourteen from
Andaman and four from Tamil Nadu were examined for genetic diversity
using 60 RAPD primers.
- Biochemical Characterization on flowering behaviour of wild mangoes of Bay Islands were
- Four local accessions of papaya were collected for
their yield and were evaluated. The local accessions GL-1 and GL-2
exhibited higher yield and quality characters when compared with the
- Biochemical and molecular characterization of Musa sp.in
Bay Islands were done. The cultivated bananas are collected from
different locations (CARI germplasm block
and villages of South Andaman).
Improvement and Standardization of Agrotechniques of vegetable crops:
- Thirteen varieties of Cowpea were evaluated. Among
the varieties, Sweta (pole type) recorded
the highest yield of 112.6 q/ha followed by Indira
Hari (bush type), which recorded the yield
of 107.5 q/ha.
- Eleven varieties of French beans were evaluated.
Among the varieties Contender, IIHR-909 and Arka
Anoop were found to be promising one for
Island conditions, which recorded the yield of 116,112.5 and 96 q/ha
- Twenty eight varieties of chillies
were evaluated and only eight varieties were retained for study. The
variety LCA-353 was promising with a Twenty eight varieties were
evaluated and only eight varieties
- Evaluation of six varieties of cowpea revealed that
among the varieties tested, the variety VRCP-5 recorded the highest
yield of 54.2 q/ha followed by VRCP-6 (36.8q/ha)
- Out of thirteen varieties of French bean tested, the variety Arka
Anoop was found superior to all
other entries with the yield of 102.73 q/ha , maximum number of pods
per plant (30.1 no) and highest weight of ten pods (104.4 gm) followed
by Swarna Lata
Improvement of coconut and arecanut:
- Morphological and yield parameters recorded on arecanut varieties (20 yr old) revealed that the
variety Samrudhi recorded the highest number
of nuts (815 nos.) per tree followed by Mangala
(614 nos.)The dry weight of challi/nut was
also highest in Samrudhi (3.50g) whereas the
variety Cal-31 recorded the least weight of challi
- Evaluation and variability analysis (Morphological
and molecular ) of coconut has been done.
- Four dwarf lines viz., CARI-C-1(CARI-Annapurna),
CARI-C-2 (CARI-Surya), CARI-C-3 (CARI-Omkar)
and CARI-C-4 (CARI-Chandan) were submitted
to State Variety Release Committee for release.
- A high yielding Arecanut
selection (CARI-Sel-1) was made from the local materials from South
Tree- soil-Crop Interactions in Agroforestry Practices in the Andaman and Nicobar
- The study of soil N mineralization under high
rainfall regime of Andaman was done across the land use systems,
NH4+/NO3- ratio during the incessant rainfall was found more than 3
times higher compared to that during the dry spells. Microbial biomass
C, ranging from -18 to 803 µg g-1 in the moist evergreen forest,-11 to
786 µg g-1 in semi-evergreen forest and -22 to 786 µg g-1 in home
garden, differed significantly due to the rainfall conditions
(P<0.0001).The available phosphorus as well as microbial biomass P
varied due to the land use systems. Available P was 19 to 20%
higher in termite soil compared to that bin the native soils.
Microbial biomass P was 24to 32% higher in termite soil compared to
that bin the native soils.
Introduction and Evaluation of Exotic and
Less Known Indigenous Fruit crops
- Seed sowing and germination studies (monthly
intervals), assessment of specific gravity and physiological loss
weight studies of Morinda citrifolia
collected from different accessions were done. The seedlings MEM-3 and
GAH-1 germinated within 5 days whereas HD-6 and PBAY-7 germinated in
19-20 days. Maximum specific gravity (1.42) from HD-6 accession and
minimum (1.12) from SPG-2 accession was recorded in mature fruits.
Maximum shelf life of mature fruits lasted for 9 days (GAH-1, SPG-2,
MEM-3 and PBAY-7 accession) followed by 7 days (WAND-4, JHG-5 and HD-6
Standardization of agrotechnique
for organic black pepper cultivation in Andaman and Nicobar islands
- To standardize the agro-techniques for organic
cultivation of black pepper, about 364 black pepper cuttings (2-
yr old) (Panniyur 1) were planted on the
standards of Gliricidia as an intercrop of
coconut at Sipighat farm. Spacing of coconut
is 7.5 x 7.5m, and either clove or nutmeg is planted in the centre of
four coconut trees at 7.5 x 7.5 m spacing. Black pepper is planted on Gliricidia standards between rows of coconut
trees. These way two models: coconut- clove- black pepper and
coconut- nutmeg- black pepper are developed, which are suitable for
Andaman and Nicobar islands.N, P, and K
requirement of Coconut– Clove– Black pepper plantation were estimated
based on the litter production and biomass decomposition.
- Similarly, leaf litter and Gliricidia
pruning biomass together was found to produce 151 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 11kg
ha-1yr-1 P and 158kg ha-1yr-1 K in coconut- nutmeg- black pepper
model. However, requirement of the trees was: 226 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 129kg
ha-1yr-1 P and 408kg ha-1yr-1 K. Additional requirement (75kg ha-1 N,
117kg ha-1 P and 251kg ha-1 K) of the trees might be met out by 112 t
ha-1yr-1 cow dung. But, this value may change during subsequent years.
Therefore, real production of Gliricidia
pruning biomass in both the models could be obtained only when growth
in black pepper vines and berry production are stabilized. Therefore,
a long term study is required to suggest package of practice of
organic black pepper cultivation under a coconut plantation.
Standardization of Technologies for
Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops under A & N Conditions
- Six varieties of tomato were evaluated under poly
house, out of 16 tested, only two highest yield was recorded
from G 600 (79.47 t/ha) followed by Arka Vikash (70.17t/ha).
- Out of seven varieties of capsicum tested, The
highest marketable yield was recorded from Indra
(47.63t/ha) followed by California Wonder (38.66t/ha).
Silvipasture system: effect of
fertilizer and cutting on nut primary production (herbage production) in
humid tropical climate of bay islands
- Coconut based silvipasture
system was evaluated at Sipighat farm with
three grasses para (Brachiaria
mutica) guinea grasses (Panicum
maximum) and hybrid napier (Panicum purpurium) in
three different situations between canopy, under canopy and open
condition with three different levels (20, 40, 60 kg/ha) of nitrogen.
Three grasses were grown under existing coconut trees planted at 7.5 x
7.5 m distance. Herbage production recorded in all the grasses
declined at the both canopy positions compared to open and the similar
trend was also recorded in the previous year. Herbage production was
highest with the increased dose of N. Para grass resulted in higher
herbage production followed by guinea grass both under and between
canopy with a fertilizer dose of 40 and 60kg/ha. However, there was
not much variation in the yield with the application of N at 60 kg/ha
so application of 40 kgN/ha for para grass is optimum to achieve desirable yield.
Under open condition hybrid Napier resulted maximum herbage yield
compared to the other grasses which indicates its suitability.
- Four indigenous fodder trees (Grewia
glabra, Mussaenda macrophylla, Treama tomentosa and Euphorbia spp)
were identified in the natural forest and three fodder grasses
(Guinea, Para and Ischaemum rubosum) were selected for developing the sivipasture system under natural forest condition.
The fresh and dry biomass production was highest in Para grass (10.8,
4.4t/ha respectively) followed by Guinea grass where as the indigenous
grass recorded the least biomass production.
All India Coordinated Research Project on
- Germplasm collection trips were conducted in Hut Bay, Car
Nicobar and NorthAndaman Islands. Colocasia accessions were collected from Middle
Andaman, Little Andaman and Car Niobar while
germplasm was collected from Little Andaman.
New accessions collected were of Greater yam (1), Colocasia
(3) and Aerial yam (1) which are being multiplied in Germplasm Block at CARI. With addition of these
five new accessions a total of 36 genotypes of tuber crops are being
maintained in the germplasm pool.
Presentation with complete descriptors has been made for release of
two varieties of Sweet Potato (CARI-SP-1 and CARI SP- 2) for releasing
at state level. Field demonstrations were conducted at farmer’s field
in South Andaman and North Andaman in 2009-10. Three thousand cuttings
of sweet potato and 150 kg yam planting materials of elephant foot
were distributed to 25 farmers in April 2009.
All India Coordinated Research Project on
- Under AICRP (VC) trials, VRCP-6 and Arka Garima of cowpea,
DWD-FB-1 of French bean, IIVR Sem-8 and IIVR Sem-11 of Dolichos bean, PB-70 and BS-54 of brinjal and Arka Vikash of tomato were found promising in Island
Standardization of Micro-Propagation
Techniques for Potential Orchids and Ferns of A & N Islands
- Different explants viz. leaf bits, suckers and
spores were tried with different media and different concentration of
hormones for each explants. Callus production was observed from leaf
bits inoculated with MS + 2, 4- D 2 mg/lt. Spores were germinated in
media containing MS+BAP+ Charcoal. The germinated spores and callus
were transferred to multiplication media and the trial is in
Standardization of Technology for Production
of Quality Flowers Under Island Ecosystem
- Fifteen varieties of gerbera viz., Marinilla, Pia,
Province, Antonio, Villssar, Ravel, Lorca,
Galileo, Loriana, Teresa, Judy, Manizales,
Figaro, Palmira and Sonata were collected from Bangalore. Among the
varieties, Maximum stalk length of 73.10 cm was recorded in Palmira.
Manizales recorded maximum no. of flowers (40 flowers/plant/season)
followed by Sonata (35 flowers/ plant/season).
National Network Project on Underutilized
- Seven accessions each of mangosteen,
durian and rambutan were collected from
Regional station, IIHR, Chettali and
Horticulture farm of Kallar and Burliar from Tamil Nadu and introduced in the
field gene bank established at Garacharma
farm. Two accessions of avocado and one accession each of longan, Garcinia and
passion fruit were also collected from diverse sources and introduced.
- The germination percent was highest in Passion
fruit (55%), followed by Mangosteen (45%)
and Avocado (40%) with least in Rambutan
(25%). The minimum time for germination.
- Physico-chemical characteristics of mangosteen,
rambutan and passion fruit were analysed .Among the fruits, maximum TSS content
was recorded in mangosteen (19.6 0 Brix) followed by rambutan
(19.6 0 Brix). Highest percent of juice
(28.93 %) and acidity (1.80 %) was recorded in passion fruit.
Collection, Conservation, Characterization
and Identification of Superior Clones of Morinda Citrifolia
- The accession with different phenotypic
characteristics were collected and 14 germplasm
each from Morinda citrifolia
and Morinda trimera
has been submitted for getting IC nos. at NBPGR, New
Delhi. Out of 811 bands, 335 bands were polymorphic. The study showed
41% polymorphism among the 14 accessions of Morinda citrifolia.
The result indicated that despite of their morphological
identity, substantial polymorphism was observed among Morinda citrifolia
accessions collected from different Islands.
Role of Alley Cropping System in Nutrient
Conservation (nutrient build up + protection of fine soil particles from
erosion) and Selection of Suitable Crop Sequence for the Cropping System
for the Andaman Islands
- An experiment was conducted in randomized block
design with 5 treatments and 4 replications to evaluate the
performance of grain amaranthus in alley
cropping system during the post monsoon period. The treatments comprised
of incorporation of Gliricidia pruned leaf
biomass @ 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 t ha-1 along with control. The growth and
yield attributing parameters were significantly influenced by the Gliricidia leaf biomass incorporation at 45 DAS
and at harvest stage in grain amaranthus.
The highest yield (770.2kg ha-1) was recorded with the incorporation
of 10 t ha-1 pruned biomass in the alley cropping system followed by
incorporation of 7.5 t ha-1 which recorded a yield of 763.2 t ha-1.
However, both the treatments were on par with each other and
significantly higher as compared to incorporation of 2.5 t ha-1 and no
incorporation (control). This indicates that application of 7.5 t ha-1
Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass in the alley
cropping system is optimum to achieve higher yield of grain amaranthus. The incorporation of 10 t ha-1 Gliricidia leaf pruning registered the increase in
available NPK content of the soil to the tune of 9.8 kg, 2 kg and 6.2
kg ha-1, respectively.
Evaluation and Identification of High Yielding Genotypes of Jatropha and Karanja and
their Multiplication in Bay Islands (NOVOD)
- In South and Middle Andaman, Jatropha
species namely J. curcas (50%) were found
more when compared to other species such as J. gossypifolia
(20%) J. Podogirica (10%) and J. multifida (10%), covering the land from wet to dry
in the island J. curcas generally grown as
live fence and also observed in waste land and in the same area J. gossypifolia were also observed. J. multifida was very rarely seen in some houses as
ornamental plant. Pongamia pinnata (20%) was mostly found in seashore and
Tsunami affected areas of South, Middle and North Andaman Districts of
Andaman. In South Andaman four candidate plus trees of Jatropha curcas, one for
J. multifida and two for J. gossypifolia were selected from Jirkatang.
Beachdera and Mazar pahad and J. curcas from Farargunj, Chouldari for J. multifida
and Sippighat and Garacharma
for J. gossypifolia
- Two plus trees were identified in New Wandoor and Chidyatapu
The observation made on their fruiting and flowering pattern, the pod
size, shape and number of seeds in candidate plus tree revealed that
girth of the trees ranged from 62 and 79 cm while the pod size ranged
from 6x 3.1cm and 6x3.7 cm. Seed size ranged from 2.2x1.9 cm to
2.1x1.7 cm respectively. The weight of hundred pods from each tree was
taken which was 1.341kg while the weight of hundred seeds was 0.396
kg. In Havelock two plus trees were identified. The observations
recorded in the tree at Vijaynagar village
of Havelock revealed the girth of tree as 152 cm with pod size of
8x3.7 cm, seed size measuring 2.5x2 cm, and hundred pods weighed
775.5g with weight of hundred seeds of 359.29g. Another tree was
observed near Radhanagar beach area,
Havelock with a girth of 57 cm. The size of the pods was 7x3 cm and
the seed size was 2.5x1.6 cm. Weight of hundred pods and seeds were
taken which measured 1.715kg and 0. 581 kg, respectively
- A very early rice line (ANR-1) with 100 days
maturity was found quite promising under AICRP trials. It is short
statured (90-100cm), with 7 -8 effective tillers’, good panicle length
(25 cm), medium bold grains with 4.0 to 4.5 tha-1 yield
under rain fed lowland conditions.
- Three hundred and nine accessions of various early
rice cultivars from IRRI were evaluated. Karjat-3 (6.88t/ha) and
IR-69716-87-1-3-1-3 (5.94 t/ha) were found most promising
- The rice hybrids such as PA 6444, JKRH 2000, PSD 3
and Suruchi were found to be high yielding.
- Five medium duration (110-120 days) low land rice
varieties viz. CARI Dhan-1, CARI Dhan-2, CARI Dhan-3, CARI Dhan-4 and
CARI Dhan-5 were released with average yield of 5.2-5.4 t/ha in Bay
Island conditions. Moreover, varieties CARI Dhan-4 and CARI Dhan-5 are
also suitable for saline soil with yield of 3.0-3.5t/ha.
- Twenty eight improved lines of rice were analyzed
for quality characters. High hulling percent was recorded for UPR
1201-1-201 (82.06) and Karjat-3 (81.83%). These lines were found to
have long and cylindrical grains with cooked rice grain elongated
between 0.33 to 1.33%.
- Evaluation of eighty long duration rice improved
lines/genotypes indicated that six cultures viz., CB-05-022, Jagnath, MTU-1075, Urvashi,
Rolagalakullu and Ramchand
were found significantly better than CARI Dhan-5. A total of 13
genotypes, Amalmana, CB-05-156, CSR-4,
DRR-1418, MTU-4870, CSR 36,MTU-1001, Lunishree,
IM 1536, DRR 1501, Canning 7, Indravati
and Rambha showed resistance against
multiple biotic stresses of diseases/insects. In long duration rice trial,
maximum yield was recorded by Jagabandhu
(4.49 tha-1), MTU. 2067 (4.39 tha-1) and MTU-1075 (4.32 tha-1).
Pulses & Oil
- Ten promising varieties of green gram were
evaluated for yield. Varieties in black gram IPM-062. Puna-9072,
MH-124 and Pusa-0771 were found most promising with yield range of
0.18 to 0.29 t/ha. Varieties CBG-647 and TU 17-14 were found most
promising with average yield of 0.81 and 0.77 q/ha respectively.
- Twenty six sesame varieties were evaluated in Rabi
season and variety PBS 9, PBS 18, PBS 17 and PBS 19 were found
promising with yield potential of 1.09 to 1.41 t/ha.
- Sixteen improved lines of green gram and 28 lines
of black gram were evaluated during Rabi season. Six and seven high
yielding varieties respectively of green gram and black gram have been
identified for further confirmation.
Agriculture Important Microbes
- A total of 273 agriculturally important micro
organisms were isolated from the hot humid coastal agro eco system of
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Among the total isolates 194 antagonistic
rhizobacteria, 22 mycoparasitic
fungi, 20 fungal pathogens and 25 bacterial pathogens were found to be
associated with vegetable and spice crops.
- A total 128 bacterial isolates were studied for
their antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii,
and C. capsici and plant growth promoting
properties viz., IAA production, phosphate solublization
and siderophore production. Out of these, 40
were identified as Bacillus
spp. and 15 as Pseudomonas
- Performance of five fungal antagonists selected by
in-vitro screening were evaluated in field trial, T. harzianum1 and T. hamatum 1 were found
effective in controlling major diseases of chilly and brinjal.
- In vitro screened 8 effective isolates of PGPRs
were evaluated in field trial, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus
spp. were found effective in controlling major diseases of chilly.
- Trichoderma hazarianum and Trichoderma hamatum
1 were found to be effective against soil borne disease of solanaceous vegetables.
- The Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
like C26 and BBI were found effective in controlling damping off, root
rot, leaf spot and wilt in tomato.
- All isolates of Trichoderma spp. from rhizopshere soil of black pepper were very
effective in suppression of mycilial growth
of P. capsici
and C. capsici.
- The antagonistic bacterial isolates BB14, BL5 and
BS1 inhibit both S. rolfsii and C. capsici.
Isolates BB6, BR4, BR5, BR6, BR7, BR9 and BR6 inhibited more than 50% mycilial growth of C. capsici.
PfR13 had strong phosphate and siderophore
production property. PSN1 and PfB16 and BR7, BL5, BL6 and BS1 have
strong phosphate solublization and siderophore production property respectively.
Isolates PfC3 and BSN 3 produced more than 50ug / ml IAA and isolates
BSDI, BC6, BM16, BM17, BM1, BM18, BSP2 showed 31-49ug/ml IAA
- Antagonistic potential of 14 Trichoderma spp. were screened
against S. rolfsii, C. gloeosporioides
and C. capsici and found that
isolate TSD 1 inhibited all the pathogens tested. TGD1, TND1, TGN1,
TWN1, TMP1, TWC2 and TJP1 inhibited two pathogens significantly.
- Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma
were evaluated against P.
capsici and C. capsici
causing foot rot and anthracnose disease in Black pepper by dual
culture test. Highest percent inhibition of P. capsici
was recorded with Tv-CARI-27 whereas C. capsici
was most parasitized with Tv-CARI-27.
- Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma
were evaluated against P.
capsici and C. capsici
by production of non-volatile antibiotics, Tv-CARI-26 and Tv-CARI-33
were found most effective against P.
capsici and C. capsici,
Pest & Diseases
- Surveys of major vegetable growing areas of South
Andaman revealed presence of 26 diseases in 13 vegetable crops
belonging to four families. Highest disease severity and incidence
were leaf spot of snake gourd/little gourd, wilt of brinjal, frog eye spot of chilly and leaf curl of
tomato during rainy season.
- Isolated and partially characterized 25 Ralstonia
spp. associated with wilt of tomato, brinjal,
chilly crops and their pathogenicity was
assessed in the glass conditions.
- Survey of pest and disease of black pepper revealed
that foot rot (Phytophthora capsici)
and pollu beetle (Longitarsus nigripennis)
were most important disease and pest, respectively.
- Of 375 lines of rice screened against major disease
and insects under natural field conditions, 29 lines were found
tolerant to insects and diseases.
- The maximum Gundhi bug
incidence was recorded in late maturing lines followed by medium
duration, but it was very low in very early, early and medium early
lines. The study revealed that there was 44 to 49% yield reduction in
medium and late duration lines as compared to early and medium
- Survey data revealed that coconut, oil palm, brinjal and tomato are seriously affected by
rodent infestations. It ranged from 8-26, 40-50 and 8-34 percent
respectively in the Islands.
- Two peaks in fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae)
population were observed viz., April (13.51/Trap/week) and December
(16.94/trap/week). The study indicated that fruit flies were prevalent
throughout the year and need proper management strategy accordingly.
- Field survey revealed that the rodent infestation
in coconut ranged from 2.5- 74.52% in Andaman. The nut damage ratio
ranged from 4.16 to 6.25%. The average rodent infestation was 26.09%
and average nut damage was 5.10%.
- A total of 18 rodent sps
were identified and reported. Out of these, 3 spp
Little Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga),
Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi
andamanenesis) and Cutch
rock-rat (Cremnomys cutchicus)
are newly recorded spp.
- The high intensity of Rhinoceros beetle
infestations in coconut palms was noticed all over the South, Middle
and North Andaman. The pest incidence ranged from 0.5 to 41.32%.
Infestation of the scale insect was low compared to Rhinoceros beetle.
High intensity of scale insect was recorded in Andaman Plantations (Meethakhadi) of South Andaman (9.46%).
- High intensity of bud rot disease of coconut was
found in V. K. Pur of Little Andaman
(31.25%) and stem bleeding was found in Krishna Nagar of Havelock
Integrated pest & disease management
- The combination of biocontrol
agents + chemical fungicides at relatively lower concentration + neem cake was very effective in management of
disease complex of tomato.
- Aqueous leaf extract of Syzgium aromaticum
inhibited the growth and development of Spodoptera litura
and affected the larval-pupal survival and
adult emergence in a dose-dependent manner. It is clearly indicated
that due to Syzygium aromaticum
extracts intoxicated food, 90 per cent larvae died at early instars,
hence the larval population could not reach the crucial late instars
stage, which is could be responsible for crop damage.
- Module consisting of combination of cultural
practices, biocontrol agents and fungicides
were most effective in percent reduction of disease incidence and
increasing yield of tomato. The results also suggested that crop
rotation with non host crop and intercropping with Burma dhania with tomato resulted into improved disease
control and yield of tomato.
- OFT trial on disease management of tomato revealed
that seed treatment + seedling dip with copper oxychloride
+soil application of the CARI-5 along with FYM and neem
cake (5.0 kg/m2) + two sprays of neem oil
(2%) was found most effective in percent reduction in disease
incidences of bacterial wilt, leaf curl, basal stem rot and fusarial wilt of tomato in all five farmer’s
- IPM module for pollu
beetle showed that lowest percent berry damage and highest yield of
black pepper was recorded in integrated module with pruning, soil
application of neem cake and foliar spray of
neembaan and quinalphos
treatment as compared to other modules tested.
- Out of 6 plants tested, Syzygium aromaticum,
and Morinda citrifolia
were found effective against fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae
as LC50 (Median lethal concentration) was 8.83, 10.67 and 10.85%
- 20 RAPD and ISSR markers were used to infer genetic
similarity among 23 different samples of wild jamun.
The dendrogram differentiated all the
samples of wild jamun at 67% similarity with
RAPD primers and 44% similarity with ISSR primers.
- A total of 43 PGP bacterial isolates from banana
and rice rhizosphere were characterized by
PCR-RFLP using 7 different restriction enzymes. 16s rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST similarity search
identified these isolates as Bacillus
spp. and Pseudomonas
- 15 antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. were characterised by PCR-RFLP using 3 different
restriction enzymes. rRNA gene sequencing
and BLAST similarity search result identified these isolates as Trichoderma
ovalisporum, Trichoderma viride
- Regarding pesticide residues in vegetables, the
sample of brinjal, okra, cauliflower,
cabbage and green chilly collected from different parts of South
Andaman including Chouldhari, Sitapur, Ramnagar and Humfrigunj showed moderate level of pesticide
residues. Samples collected from Mayabundar
showed no residue at all.
- In mushroom, Calocybe indica
gave 30-40% efficiency and Hipsyzygus ulmarius
gave 40-50% biological efficiency on paddy straw. Both these mushroom
spp. were found to be promising for cultivation in these Islands.
Improvement, Evaluation & Propagation of
Indigenous Nicobari fowl and Ducks
- Dual purpose synthetic fowl Nishibari
(White Nicobari X ILI 80) and Nicorock ( Black Nicobari
X Black Rock) have been developed for backyard farming. Nishibari produces 160-170 eggs per year under
backyard and Nicorock produces130-140 eggs
per year with an average of 1 kg body weight at 12 weeks of age under
- The reciprocal crosses of Andaman Duck x Khaki were
produced and evaluated. The AEP of Khaki Campbell x Andaman ducks
showed quiet increase (167) in number of egg production compared to
local Andaman ducks (110). The Chara and Chemballi ducks produced 180 eggs / annum.
- Evaluation of different crosses of ducks revealed
that the cross of Pekin X Chara chembali performed
better in terms of growth performance, feed utilization,
survivability, performance index and production number. The cross may
be reared for meat purpose under backyard system of rearing.
Adaptability and Productivity of Turkey and
Guinea Fowl in Bay Islands
- Turkey and Guinea fowl were introduced and found as
potential birds for alternate poultry farming and got better
adaptability and performance under island ecosystem.
Productive and reproductive performance in
- Pattern of milk production during dry (January to
April) and monsoon season (May to December) were studied for 16 years
(years with 12 months production). Monthly milk production (Mean± SE)
during dry season was lower (761.02±38.7 l) than the monsoon season
(804.48±6.4 l). Number of cows on lactation during dry and monsoon
season was 5.09±0.16 and 5.03±0.08 respectively. Average daily milk
yield per cow during dry and monsoon season was 3.51±0.04 and
3.61±0.05 respectively. However no significant difference was found
between dry and monsoon season. Similarly, calving pattern studies
(1985 to 2007) during dry vs monsoon season
revealed that no significant difference was observed on number of
calving (10.25±3.3 vs 13.25±1.4), birth
weight of male calf (19.97±0.8 vs 20.39±1.03
kg), birth weight of female calf (20.27±0.7 vs
20.34±0.5 kg) and calf mortality (2.75±0.8 vs
2.13±0.6 nos.) , respectively.
- There was significant (P<0.05) influence of
season (105.70±13.0 vs 139.12±6.5 lit) on
average monthly milk production of individual cows during entire
lactation. This could be directly or indirectly related to nutritional
status i.e availability of sufficient green
fodder resources and climatic conditions during monsoon season.
- Lactation data of desi
(17 lactations) and cross bred cows (72 lactations) for the past 22
years were analyzed. Productive performance (Mean±SE)
of cross bred cows showed that there was significant difference (P<
0.01) observed between desi and cross bred
cows on lactation yield (553.51±40.7 vs
1500.48±97.4 l.), lactation length (276.05±13.5 vs
361.63±16.5 days) average daily milk yield per lactation (2.01±0.1 vs 4.27±0.2), peak milk yield (3.85±0.5 vs 7.45±0.3 lit) and no significant difference was
observed on no. of days to reach peak yield (8.6±2.4 vs 17.95±1.2). The order of lactation was also
observed to influence the milk production potential of the individual
cross bred cow.
- The reproductive performance of cross bred cows
showed that the age at first calving (n=13) and inter calving interval
(n=18) was observed to be 1107.08±66.28 (days) and 515.88±25.74 (days)
respectively. The birth weight (kg) of female calf (21.26±0.6, n=75)
was significantly higher (P<0.01) than male calf (19.0±0.3, n=63).
- Standardized technologies for controlled breeding
for calving of cows in monsoon when sufficient green fodder is
available. Veterinary ultrasonography was
found to be the efficient diagnostic tool to study the pathophysiology of udder and ovarian status and
pregnancy diagnosis in cattle.
Enhancement and sustainable dairy cattle and
buffalo production in bay islands
- Lactation performance of cross bred cows showed
lactation length of 351.17±43.36 days with lactation yield of
1857.74±272.21 litre with a wet average of
5.5±0.7 litre. The peak yield of 8.88±0.95 litre reached at 27.17±4.33 days.
- Exogenous calcium supplementation in lactating cows
and supplementation in the form of feed pellets was an economical and
effective source of calcium which significantly improved the milk
production of lactating crossbred cows.
- Transcutaneous ultrasonographic
examination using modified water bath method allowed clear
visualization of teat characteristics (teat canal length, diameter,
teat wall thickness, teat length and thickness) than directly placing
the probe. The present findings suggest that ultrasonography
provides accurate features of bovine teat and udder characteristics in
relation to health (lactation physiology) and disease.
- Feeding of Morinda citrifolia
fruit juice @ 100 ml daily to cattle reduced the pH,
conductivity, and microbial load in the milk of mastitis affected cow.
Medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia
showed antioxidant properties by gradually increasing the SOD and catalase levels in blood of calves.
Productivity enhancement of pigs under islands ecosystem
- The productive performance of the large white
Yorkshire revealed that weaning of piglets at six weeks of age
increases the productivity of sows compared to eight weeks of weaning.
- Ultrasonographic evaluation of back fat thickness was observed to
be 19.00 and 33.17 mm in young and adult pigs respectively. It is
suggested that the process of fat deposition in young and adult pigs
varies significantly and this method is found to be useful in
characterizing the fat and muscle of indigenous and exotic pigs.
- Reproductive performances of Large White Yorkshire
pigs revealed that maize based diet was found the best when compared
with the ration consist of colocasia, rice
bran or broken rice /wheat based diet.
- Supplementation of 80 ppm
Zinc per day per piglet resulted significant (p<0.01) increase in
body weight of weaned piglets. A floor space of 60 sq ft for a nursing
sow was found better in terms of higher weaning body weight than 30 sq
ft floor space.
Assessment of critical nutritional gap in
- Survey in different parts of the Andaman Islands
revealed that there is severe deficiency of nutrients available to
cattle and buffalo as the availability of concentrate and green fodder
is only 3461 MT and 600 MT annually against the requirement of 21546
and 218912 MT respectively.
- The increasing interest of farmers in small
livestock farming as compared to large animal farming was inferred as
per analysis of the secondary data of 18th livestock census, 2007.
- Island wise fodder and feed requirement for
different livestock species was worked out. Requirement of green
fodder was 1.37 lakh t/ annum while
requirement of dry fodder was 0.66 lakh
t/annum. Requirement of concentrates for livestock was only 1.23 lakh t/annum.
Evaluation and Utilization of Azolla as feed supplement for backyard poultry
- Azolla was introduced as a feed supplement and their
proximate composition rvealed that the
moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and total ash were
found to be 4.92, 21.17, 4.60, 4.59 and 19.91per cent respectively and
demonstrated that Azolla could be grown and
cultivable under this island ecosystem and its nutritive value showed
the feasibility of its utilization as a feed supplement for livestock
- Replacement of 21.7% concentrated feed with fresh Azolla in quail did not show any adverse effect on
egg production. Azolla supplementation
(2-3%) by replacing commercial feed in growing quails up to the age of
marketing saved the feed cost of 16 paise
per quail and yielded better carcass percentage. Azolla
was found to have an immunoenhancer effect
in chicken when supplemented with azolla
at the rate of 40%.
- Azolla supplementation to the grower duck at the rate of
50-100 gms per day saved 12.5% feed per duck
and the feed cost of Rs.20 per duck up to the age of 10 weeks. Azolla supplementation (50 g per day per layer )
to the layer duck could replace 16.6% concentrated feed with savings
in feed cost of Rs. 5.85 per bird per day.
Characterization of LHβ
and FSHβ and their receptor genes in goat
breeds of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and
luteinizing hormone are heterodimer of a
common alpha (a) subunit and a unique beta (b) subunit. The study was
aimed to understand the molecular mechanism and the role of mutation
in FSHβ and LHβ
gene in goat fertility. The nucleotide variation in the exon 2 of Follicle Stimulating Hormone beta and
exon1 & 2 of Luteinizing hormone beta gene in Local Andaman Goat
was studied by PCR- SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism).
- FSHβ exon 2 (187 bp) variants have been identified for the first
time in Local Andaman goats. Characterization of exon
2 & 3 of LHbeta gene in goat breeds of
A&N islands viz. Teressa, Local Andaman and Malabari
revealed two different variants through SSCP study.
Evaluation of therapeutic and immunomodulatory properties of Morinda citrifolia in poultry.
- Supplementation of M. citrofolia extract
enhanced the immuno response of poultry.
Feeding of M.citrifolia crude fruit extract
@ 5% in drinking water to Japanese quail enhanced the body weight gain
and egg production performance and replacement of 20% concentrate feed
with dried fruit granules of Morinda citrifolia
enhanced the body weight gain in Japanese quail and better
FCR at 5th week of age.
- The chloroform and acetone extract of Morinda citrifolia
leaf and fruit produced antibacterial activity against two
different isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum;
RSN 6 and RSN 12. The potential of the Morinda citrifolia
extracts was found much better than most of the
antibiotics and the same may be useful against the treatment of Ralstonia infection in plants.
Feasibility evaluation of growing fodder
during pre paddy and post paddy period under rainfed
- Concept of utilizing the available moisture and
shortage of cultivable land a pilot study was conducted to grow fodder
in pre paddy and post paddy fields. The average production of maize, coix, cow pea and rice bean were 9.26, 4.94, 31.38
and 20.19 t/ha respectively. It was found that fodder crops can be
taken as pre and post paddy crops successfully to augment the fodder
supply to the livestock.
Productivity enhancement of goats in bay
- The Andaman local goats were upgraded using exotic
Boer goat and F1 showed higher body weight gain (20-40%) than the
local goats. The productive and reproductive performance of the
Andaman local goat and Boer cross revealed that the birth weight of
both male and female kids of Boer cross was significantly (P<0.01)
higher than Andaman local goat.
- Composition of birth in goats revealed that the
usual number of kids born at one time varied from single to twins, of
which percentage of singles (53.33) were more frequent than twins
(46.66). The overall birth weight of kids born as single and twins was
1.48±0.14 and 1.60±0.14 respectively. The carcass yield was
significantly (p<0.01) higher in males (50.13±1.18) than females
- Controlled breeding technology using intra-vaginal
sponges found as the means of facilitating planned breeding and to
reduce the kidding interval in goats.
- Ultrasonography using a water bath based approach resulted in a
non-invasive, easy and simple method for breeding soundness or
clinical examination of male goats.
Conservation and characterization of Nicobari pig
- It is concluded that the Nicobari
pigs are considered as an indigenous pig breed / germplasm
Nicobaricus) belonging to this
island territory. The phenotypic characters showed that the Nicobari pigs were indigenous to these islands and
their existence was noted since many centuries.
- The Nicobari pigs showed
high prolificacy (litter size 8-10 nos. and less preweaning
mortality). Castrated male and adult female showed higher body weight
(100-150 kg). The pigs were reared and considered as family asset
among the tribal. No commercial farms or sale of meat was practiced.
However, tribes slaughter the pigs mostly during festive occasions and
family/community gathering. Awareness programme
on conservation of indigenous pig germplasm
and training on scientific pig farming was given for the Tribal,
tribal school children and island farmers. Tribal families were
identified for maintaing /conserving the pig
Studies on the status of mineral profile in
Bovine of A & N Islands and its correlation to morbidity and production.
- Micro and macro mineral status of water, soil,
fodder and sera samples of dairy cattle from different village of
South Andaman showed, that in the soil sample the overall Fe, Cu, and Mn were found higher than the critical level in
all the season mainly the monsoon season. Fodder sample the level of
macronutrients Mg, K and P was found to be lower their critical level
except Ca and Na which were found within the normal range. The sera
sample analysis of the cattle representing the each village suggests
that the level of Mg, Na, K and Ca was found lower than normal value. Ca:P ratio of the cattle of the infertile zone was
lower than the fertile zone.
Phenotypic and molecular characterization of
indigenous goat of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- Significant differences in body weight and physical
parameters among the goat breeds alongwith
sexual dimorphism in Local Andaman, Teressa
and Malabari goats were observed.
- Microsatellite analysis of indigenous goats
revealed that a total of 50 genotypes were observed across the 15
loci. The number of genotype varied between (MAF70; SRCRSP3) 1 and 6
(SRCRSP15). The effective number of alleles (Ne) varied from 2 to 6.98
in Teressa goat and 2 to 4.31 in local
goats. All the values of FIS obtained for the Teressa
and Andaman local goats were negative which is suggestive of no
inbreeding within the populations and the animals were outbred. The mode-shift test indicated the genetic
bottleneck in Teressa and Andaman Local
goats and needs greater attention towards in situ/ex situ conservation.
Enhancement and sustainable dairy farming
through reproductive health care
- The major constraints encountered by the farmers
were shortage of green fodder (96.0%), anoestrus and repeat breeding
(94.0%), prolonged calving interval (90.0%), inadequate pricing for
milk (90.0%), poor marketing facility for milk sale (80.0%), non
availability of concentrates (60.0%), high tick infestation (50.0%),
scarcity of water during dry season (30.0%) and lack of proper scientific
- Technological interventions such as augmentation of
reproductive performance of dairy cows through infertility management
and controlled breeding programme, promotion
of fodder cultivation, control of tick infestation and training on
scientific dairy cattle management and post harvest processing of milk
and preparation of traditional dairy products were implemented which
could considerably increase the profitability of the farmers.
- The Nicobar group of Islands are highly vulnerable to climatic variation due to their flat
topography, limited physical size and geographical isolation. Among
the Nicobar Islands, Trinket and Chowra have
over 15% of the total land area with an elevation less than 10m above
MSL. The digital elevation data taken together with the population
density of different islands in the Nicobar district showed that Chowra is the most vulnerable island to
climate-associated disasters. The agricultural vulnerability map of
Car Nicobar prepared based on multiple parameters indicated that about 20% of the area in
Car Nicobar has high to very high vulnerability to climate change.
- The projected changes in mean temperature and precipitation
using the MAGICC/SCENGEN software indicate that the rainfall pattern
is all set to change significantly (P<0.05) during different
seasons and the pattern of change in Nicobar would be different from
that in Andaman.
- Under a collaborative project with
Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad,
contributed in determining the extent of coral reef area in A&N
Islands (1021.5 sq.km). Species distribution in Marine National
Parks (MNP) and popular dive sites have been documented. Periodic
surveys conducted to assess the reef health across different islands
in Andaman indicated that the reefs suffered extensive bleaching (upto 70%) during May 2010 due to elevation of sea
surface temperature. Anthropogenic disturbance of the reefs leading to
polychaete infestations and reef mortality
was also described.
- Developed spectral signatures for different forms of corals
and delineated their potential use for differentiation of coral forms
and species in some cases through underwater radiometer surveys in Andaman.
- The biodiversity of marine sponges from North Bay and Pongi Baalu has been
documented. Altogether 51 marine sponges were collected and described
through conventional taxonomy (17 of them are new locational records for India). Through a study on
the bioactivity of marine sponges 10 sponges
and 75 sponge associated bacteria with significant bioactivity were
identified and characterized.
- 34 true mangrove species belonging to
15 genera, 10 orders and 12 families have been documented and 25
species, one of which is a new locational
record for the islands were fully described.
- Trophic level productivity measurements
within different areas, coral reefs, , mangroves, coastal and open sea
have been done along with spatial and temporal patterns of different
water quality parameters and their relation to aquatic fauna. The average gross and net primary productivity of Andaman
coastal waters were found to be 298.33 and 115.27 mg C/m3/ha
- Under a collaborative project with
INCOIS, three Digital Display Boards have been
installed in Andaman to disseminate details on fish availability,
weather conditions and tsunami warning. The study showed that by following the Potential Fishing
Zone (PFZ) advisories, the catch per unit effort (CPUE) shall be increased
by 34% and scouting time shall be reduced by 51%. By following the PFZ
advisories, an average increase of 30.37 ± 2.27%, 30.03 ± 2.15% and
23.80 ± 1.30% in total catch was observed by gillnetters, trawlers and
longliners respectively. The cost benefit
ratio for each class of vessel was 2.70 for gillnetters; 3.47 for
trawlers and 3.26 for longliners against
their respective control group of fishers (1.68, 1.50 and 1.81). A
total of 60 PFZ awareness campaigns were held across
the islands wherein over 600 fishers were sensitized.
- A systematic analysis of landings
of groupers and snappers in South Andaman revealed
that the average annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) was 130 kg/boat,
with maximum CPUE (186 kg/boat) being recorded in September, 2010. Among groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus
and among snappers, Lutjanus gibbus were the predominant species. In case
of Epinephelus malabaricus,
major size classes of landings were found to be between 25-40 cm which
indicates “growth overfishing” and the need for proper fishing
regulation for sustainable harvest of the resource.
- The feasibility of cage culture of
groupers in protected bays and creeks in Andaman was assessed using
wild caught seeds. The grouper stocked at the size of 201.73 ± 27.57
mm and weight 90.06 ± 41.40 g recorded a growth of 79%
in six months with 97% survival. The study demonstrated that the cannibalism and crab
infestation in the cages can be checked through proper site selection
and feeding management. The bottleneck for the adoption of the
technology were issues related to seed supply, access to live fish
market and logistics required for live fish trade.
- An integrated mangrove-based agro-
aqua farming system was developed at Sippighat
Brackishwater Farm complex of CARI and at a
farmers’ field at Indira Nagar. More than
150 farmers were sensitized on the potential of mangrove-based aqua
farming in the islands. Two farming system patterns- pond-based
brackish and fresh water farming systems have been demonstrated to the
- The Cheekspine
anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus
has been successfully bred in captivity and details of embryonic
development from egg to hatchlings have been recorded. The larvae
(3.724 ± 0.05 cm) after hatching were active swimmers and started
feeding on rotifers after yolk absorption (12-24 h). The breeding
technology has been included in the Micro-Business Module published by
the institute. The major live feed supplement for damsels is the
rotifers and their distribution and abundance (7 species) in the
islands was explored and documented.
- A catfish hatchery has been
established at CARI and the seed production and larval rearing
technology of cat fish (Magur) has been
standardized successfully with a survival of 60% under controlled
- A study on the incidence of white
spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the wild stock of tiger shrimps in
Andaman indicated that about 30% of the wild tiger shrimps are
carriers of WSSV, the most devastating disease known to shrimp
- An exhaustive survey on the tsunami
affected areas was carried out delineating ideal areas for brackish
water aquaculture in collaboration with CIBA, Chennai and A&N
Administration under the aegis of Coastal Aquaculture Project
- Backyard hatchery for Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
has been developed at CARI. Seed were being produced in hatchery and
regularly distributed to the farmers of South Andaman.
- Magur hatchery has been set up for the first time in
Andaman and Nicobar Island. Magur seed were
produced and maintained at the newly constructed hatchery. In order to
cater to the needs of catfish seeds in the Islands, a magur hatchery has been developed at CARI. The cat
fish larval development unit has been developed wherein breeding of magur has been carried-out successfully with a
survival of 60% under controlled conditions.
- Salinity tolerance study was also conducted in Clarias batrachus
to explore the possibility of culturing them in slightly
saline areas. It was observed that fishes grow better at 0 ppt salinity. Mortality rate of magur was highest at 8 ppt
salinity (16.7%). Studies on biochemical parameters revealed that most
of the parameters like ascorbic acid, blood glucose and liver glycogen
levels were reduced drastically at 8ppt.
- Post tsunami survey was conducted to identify the
potentially cultivable area, revealed that approximately
4000 ha areas of agricultural farmlands have been submerged, out of
which 630.12 ha of area were suitable for coastal aquaculture purpose.
- Growth studies of Liza tade was
tried in different salinity and found that the overall growth was not
very encouraging in this in the laboratory condition. Maximum growth
in terms of weight gain was recorded at 15 ppt
salinity followed by 10 ppt salinity.
- Survey on mangrove area showed that 30-80% mangrove
stands have got affected in South Andaman due to earthquake and
tsunami during 2004. In Middle Andaman the impact is negligible
whereas in North Andaman due to elevation of land, the seawater is not
reaching some of the mangrove. Survey in Shoal Bay area of South
Andaman indicated that Rhizophora apiculata
account is the dominant species (43.6%) followed by Rhizophora mucraonata
(15.0 %) and Ceriops tagal
(13.3%). Studies on mangroves in and around Shoal Bay and Porlob Jig under coastal zone studies was
investigated and found that Rhizophora apiculata
( 27.35) was dominated in Shoal Bay area and Ceriops tagal
( 38.2%) in Porlob Jig.
- An Integrated farming system based on brackish
water aquaculture, incorporating components of horticulture, medicinal
plants and poultry has been attempted. Tiger prawn seeds (PL-20)
produced from Andaman mother shrimp at this institute. At the farmer
field with zero management practice, tiger shrimp has been cultured
- Incidents or prevalence of white spot disease in
Andaman waters was investigated through PCR. It was found that
infection rate was 17.77% in 2007, and 36% in 2006. From the studies,
it was found that infection rate of WSSV in tiger prawn Penaeus monodon
and Banana prawn, Ferropenaeus merguensis
in Andaman is mild.
- Successfully completed cage culture experiment in
Andaman waters. From the study 79.17% growth rate within six
months with 96.81% survival was achieved from the study. Successive
culture experiments suggested that the cannibalism in the groupers
could be checked by resorting to proper feeding.
- Breeding techniques of damsel fish, Premnas biaculeatus
has been successfully bred in captivity and details of
embryonic development from egg to hatchlings were recorded and
photographed. Live feed like rotifers have been used for feeding the
fishes. The larvae after hatching were active swimmers and started feeding
on rotifers after yolk absorption (12-24 h).
- The brown algae, Nanochloropsis oculata
was found to be a better feed than the green algae, Chlorella marina to
the rotifers, which constitute the major live feed of marine
ornamental fishes. The algal density required for maintaining the
desired density of rotifers and copepods in the finfish hatchery was
- A total of 20 species of grouper and 5 species of
snapper have been identified from landing centers. Efficacy of fish
flesh, mussel meat, chicken waste and mixed feed (equal percentage of
all other feeds) on Cephalopholis microprion
has been tried and found that mussel meat gives the best
result followed by fish flesh.
Resource assessment studies
- A survey on the wild catch of Groupers and Snappers
in various landing centres in South Andaman
indicated that grouper landings are significant in Wandoor
and Guptapara. Among groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus
and among snappers, Lutijanus gibbus
were the predominant species. A systematic analysis of landings of
groupers and snappers in South Andaman revealed that the average
annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) was 130 kg/boat, with maximum CPUE
(186 kg/boat) being recorded in September, 2010.
- Cataloguing of 42 species of ornamental reef fishes
from North Bay area has been done. RAPD finger printing between
freshwater and brackish water Tilapia species has been attempted and
revealed typical cluster at 73% similarity level in the dendogram. It is evident that fishes are thriving
in both the environments with a similar genetic makeup with a
difference of only 6% as envisaged in the present sampling and primer
- Studies on the temporal variation in water quality
parameters indicated that the primary productivity of Andaman waters
progressively increased from June 2008 to Feb 2009. The average gross
productivity, net productivity and respiration requirement were 321.1
, 125.6 mg C/ m3/ h and 12.8 mg C/ m3/ h respectively.
- An exploratory survey on the habitat of top shell, Trochus sp indicated that
its normal habitat consists of dead corals and algae (23.57%), dead
corals (19.3%), live corals (19.5%), rock and rubbles (14.28%), sand
(12.93%), soft corals (4.01%) and other components. Percentage
distribution of, Trochus niloticus
species is more in Boat Island followed by Chidyatappu.
is found in near shore areas as well as in the coral reefs
areas. Along with the Trochus sp various other
gastropods and coral reef fishes are also recorded which in turn form
a part of the habitat of T.
- PFZ advisories have proved to be a potential tool
in harvesting under-exploited fishery resources with a significant
increase (34%) in CPUE of fishing vessels in the A&N Islands.
Validation experiments employing different vessels viz., gillnetters,
trawlers and long liners showed an average increase in total catch of
37±1.8%, 34±1.24% and 30±1.36% respectively.
Cataloging and characterization of marine
- The coral reef biodiversity and mangrove
biodiversity of the A&N Islands were documented and a field guide
for the identification of mangroves of A&N Islands has been
- To study the distribution and abundance of corals
of Andaman, the line transect survey was employed using topographic
satellite maps. There were 192 species of coral under 57 genera in 15
families were recorded from Andaman and Nicobar during the period 2004
- Periodic surveys conducted to assess the reef
health across different islands in Andaman indicated that the reefs
suffered extensive bleaching (upto 70%) during
May 2010 due to elevation of sea surface temperature. The bleached
reef associates have fully recovered, massive corals are recovering
while all the affected branching corals (Acropora sp)
- Altogether 51 marine sponges were collected of
which 27 have been described through conventional taxonomy.
Antimicrobial assay of host vis-ŕ-vis the associated bacteria was
carried out for eight sponges. The bioactivity of Pseudoceratina purpurea,
was predominantly due to host metabolites, while in all
others the associated bacteria displayed higher inhibitory bioactivity
than their hosts.
- Two marine sponges Stylissa sp
sp collected from North Bay, South Andaman were studied for their
antimicrobial properties against selected pathogenic bacteria. About
70% of the isolates associated with Stylissa sp werefoundtoproduce antibiotics and one of them was
about 120% as effective as erythromycin against Klebsiella pneumonia.
- Four sponges collected from Pongibaalu
viz., Crella cyathophora, Oceanapia sagittaria,
Plakortis sp and Monanchora sp were studied for
their antimicrobial properties against selected pathogenic bacteria.
Qualitative dual culture assay revealed that in case of Oceanapia sagittaria
and Monanchora sp, the
antimicrobial activity was primarily due to the host metabolites. In Crella cyathophora
and Plakortis sp., over 75% of
the associated bacteria exhibited significant (P<0.05)
antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogens.
- To assess the climate change threats in Nicobar
Islands, agricultural vulnerability map of Car Nicobar was
prepared based on multiple parameters viz., elevationabove
mean sea level, estimated sea level rise of 0.3-0.5m, soil
quality/depth and land-use pattern. It was observed that about 20% of
the area in Car Nicobar has high to very high vulnerability to climate
change as predicted globally. The soils in these islands are generally
medium in available N (4.47-7.19 kg/ha) and low in available K
(115-194 kg/ha), which imply that climate change-induced increase in rain
fall or seawater ingression would lead to soil erosion, leaching of
salts and salination of coastal lands thus
rendering the soils unproductive for agriculture.
Market and export potential analysis of
marine fishery resources in Andaman and Nicobar islands
- In A & N Islands about 97 number of
fisherman villages and 3274 families driving livelihood from fishing
profession with more than 15000 population. These fishermen mostly
migrated from nearby states.
- Total potential of fisheries in A & N Island is
about 1.48 lahk tones but due to lack of
infrastructure and equipments only less than 20 percent is being
- The income structure of fisherman indicated that
most of them are low income people.
- They drive about 70% income from fishery sector and
30 % from labour, carpenter, net knitting
and other sources.
- Consumer fish price indicated that it has been
increased about 63 % from 2008 to 2011.
- Market cost incurred by the different
intermediaries mostly on transport, Ice, labour
An economic analysis of floriculture and
vegetables potential in andaman and nicobar islands
- Prices of flowers and vegetable are having very
- Islands are producing most of vegetables in
sufficient quantity in February to April only rest of the period it is
being imported from mainland.
- Market infrastructure including transportation and
cold storage facilities are poorly developed.
- High price differences in different sites of
productions and consumption.
- Poor database on market information about flowers
- The total flower sellers in these islands were 32
- Total area required to meet the local demand is
about 7.0 ha. Under protected cultivation.
- Huge money can be saved for local flower
cultivators by producing flowers locally.
- The impact of the recommendation of project is that
more area has been put up by the agriculture department A & N
Administration under protected vegetable and flower cultivations.
Economic valuation of mangroves in andaman and nicobar islands
- Total economic value of the A & N Mangroves was
worked out to be more than 12000 crore/
Annum on current price.
- Per households harvest more than Rs. 65000/- worth
benefits annually from the mangroves. Per ha. Economic value of
mangroves was found to be more than 2.0 lakh/ha./
Natural resources degradation and socio
economic impact of leased farming in Andaman
- Minimum rate of soil erosion observed in forest
- Nutrient levels were greatly enhanced under forest
- Sediment had also had lower organic matter content,
nutrient concentration and pH values.
- More clay was eroded on steeper slopes.
- Selective clay depletion will have serious
implications on soil structure and fertility.
Identifying Livelihood Options and Training
Needs Compatible to Self Help Groups to Fructify these Options
- The status of credit linkages of the Self Help
Groups in these islands was studied which reflects that a total
of 702 groups have been credit linked of which 481 are in South
Andaman comprising of 435 as women, 17 men and 29 mixed groups.
In North & Middle Andaman district out of 213 groups, 175 are
women followed by 20 men and 18 mixed groups and in Nicobar district
only 8 groups which are women only have been linked. The overall
credit linkage of the Self Help groups accounts for only 31.60%.
- The strength of the group was found to be 10.48
with the average corpus money of 1.26 lakhs
per group which was found to be optimum to start any agriculture &
allied enterprise as livelihood venture.
- The findings on the expenditure pattern
on saving together accounted for 71 percent on social capital i.e.
health, education and household.
Impact Assessment of Technological
Interventions in Andaman
- Over the period from 2000-2011 the Institute, has
been successful in transferring 136 technologies in agriculture and
allied fields for the benefit of the stakeholders of the A & N
islands. The contribution towards the technology transfer
comprises i.e. 31(23%) by division of Animal Science, 29 (21%) by
Horticulture & Forestry, 24 (18%) by Natural Resource Management,
23 (18%) by Field crops, 22 (16%) by Social Science and 7 (5%) by Fisheries
- Out of 136 technologies during
2000-2011 transferred by the Institute, following technologies viz crop Based (BBF, Rice variety and
IPM module), Livestock based (Boer goat,
Pig and Quail) & Fisheries based (IMC, Fresh water prawn &
Crab fattening were selected. Interview schedule was constructed and
data collected among the representative sample.
- Technology on Composite fish Culture with CRM was
also promising both at South & North & Middle Andaman
District. In few cases the farmers have restored the adoption of
the technology even after Tsunami
2004 in South Andaman which describes about the potential
of the technology at ground level. An average
harvest return of 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha/year. Was received.Many
farmers through the sale of the fish i.e. 1.5 to 2 per year could earn
an income of Rs. 1.85 to 2 lakhs. Fish
& poultry has become one of the components in their family
consumption. The horizontal spread of the technology was found to be
to the tune of 20 ha. The farmers are getting a regular income and
assured nutritional supplement the family.
- BBFs introduced under the FRARP project were found
to have been adopted by the farmers in the village clusters of South
Andaman. They opined that it was a good technology which assured
round the year return from the field, mitigated the risk
factor and also gave an additional income. There was an
additional income of Rs 20 to 25000/ and employment generation of 90
to 120 mandays. The problem was of pest
& disease attack as there on the crop grown because the neighbouring farmers have not restored to farming
completely was seen. Extension of the area due to joint
mutation of the land was not possible.The upscaling of the technology has been done as the
Lead Bank has sanctioned to finance the technology through KCC.The Administration has come forward to popularise the technolog
through RKVY Scheme.
- The detailed study with more samples of the
technologies in South, Middle & North Andaman is in progress to
give a feedback on Socio economic impact (before & after),
technology gap, technology index, technology spread & constraints
- Developed ANN model for forecasting of rice yield
for the island
- Database on AGRANI have been developed and linked
with the website
Project-Potential and prospects of Campbell
Bay being production hub to meet requirements of PDS (rice) and perishable
foods of Nicobar district
- The detail of arable land was worked out in
Campbell Bay. A total 2448 acres (979.2 ha) land was allotted to 200
settlers from mainland out of this, only 61.5% was now available for
- As per NPR data, population of Nicobar group of
islands is 39949 out of which Campbell Bay population is 8679.
- As per ICMR guidelines, the requirement (t/yr)of
various food commodities for Campbell Bay/ Nicobar group has been
worked out as given: Cereals-1410/6492, Pulses- 90/413, Vegetables-
513/2362, Fats & oils- 121/555, Meat/ fish- 253/1163, Milk-
593/2730 and Roots & tubers – 432/1990.
- The family size of respondents was 4.41. In the
family, maximum numbers were young (56.24%) followed by old (26.76%).
Adolescent population was only 17.23% of family size.
- The farmers in C/B were earning a monthly income of
Rs 16060 per family out of which govt
service sector was contributing 39.13% followed by agriculture
(29.54%) and private jobs (13.79%.
- Among field crops, rice, maize and jowar were occupying an average area of 2.73 acres
per farm. Plantation crops were being raised in 3.94 acres per farm.
The operational expenses were Rs 2520/acres in case of field crops of
rice, maize and jawar, Rs 2439 in case of
pulses and Rs 8390 in case of vegetabes.
- Livestock economy of in C/B was not very
strong. On an average, livestock worth Rs 15842 were kept by the
farming families. Piggery were not so preferred vocation in C/B. Milk
production was found to be economical and feasible.
- The most effective source of agriculture technology
information was found to be radio (freq. = 0.49) followed by TV, NGOs
and Govt department.
- To assess the timely availability and quality of
inputs, farmers were asked to give score between 0-10 ranges. Except
machinery and manures all other inputs were not available in time.
Their score was below 5.0/10. Same was the case with their quality.
- On an average, the expenditure on food per farm
family in a month was Rs 3961. Maximum exp. was on milk and milk
products followed by vegetables, non-veg
foods, pulses, fruits and rice and wheat.
- Given the average productivity, the potential
harvest would be 1911 tons of rice, 108 tons of pulses and 1072 tons
of vegetables per annum from 603 ha land assuming 50:50 ratio in field
and plantation crops.
Demand and Supply Analysis of Livestock
Products in Andamans
- During the 1st year of investigation,
socio-economic status of the farmers of South Andaman was assessed.
- Primary data collected from livestock farmers
showed that they were earning an income of Rs. 16674/ per month per
family out of which max. Contribution was from service sector (52.98%
followed by private jbs (30.49%. Agriculture
share was only 5.35%.
- The value of livestock kept by the families was Rs
23073 out of which about 50% was from desi
- Price behaviour of
livestock products showed that there was no difference between prices
in dry season or wet season except chickens and pork. The prices of
meat and chicken were rising faster than milk and its products.
- Production was more in dry season n case of milk
and eggs. So was the case for consumption as well.
- Total consumption expenditure per family was Rs
5001/ out of which nearly 50% goes for high value foods followed by
vegetables. Non-food expenditure was s 2890/ per family per month.
Determination of carrying capacity of
islands and its potential for organic farming
- The population of the Andaman and Nicobar islands
was projected in different age groups over time for 1931 and based on
that, given the ICMR guidelins of daily
requirements in various age-groups, the requirements of various food
commodities were worked out and projections were made towards 1931. Island
population is mostly dependent on mainland to meet out its cereal and
other food requirements.
- Base on the production and requirements, the
availability status of different commodities was worked out. As of now
the islands are deficit up to 74.94% in total cereal requirements,
69.34% in pulses, 99.48% in oils, 9.62% in milk and 89.62% in meat
requirements. Sugar is totally imported from mainland. Island
population is dependent on mainland for its requirement of potato and
- The deficit will persist towards 1931 in almost all
commodities except milk and meat, the availability of these will
improve and deficit will subside beyond 1921.
- The fruits and vegetables are in excess in dry
season only but due to non availability of cold storage, their
availability is difficult to maintain in rainy season. The situation
can improve only at the policy levels.